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Black Mountain College 1936-1937 and 1937-1938 catalogue

20th century
Medium & Support
Ink on paper
Overall: 9 x 6 in.
Object Type
Archival Documents
Credit Line
Black Mountain College Collection, gift of Barbara Beate Dreier and Theodore Dreier, Jr. on behalf of all generations of Dreier family
Accession Number
In Copyright, Educational Use Permitted
Courtesy of the Theodore Dreier Sr. Document Collection, Asheville Art Museum

Black Mountain College 1936-1937 and 1937-1938 catalogue, first catalog to feature photographs. On first image, text wraps around circle which reads "BLACK MOUNTAIN COLLEGE BLACK MOUNTAIN N.C." Text below seal lists calendar dates for upcoming school year.

Green letterpress on matte cardstock and black offset print on semi-gloss paper with images.

Black Mountain College Black Mountain, North Carolina
calendar 1936-37
Fall Semester begins sept 6. ends dec. 19
winter vacation begins dec. 19 ends jan. 25
Spring Semester begins jan. 25 ends june 5
spring vacation begins march 27 ends april 5
Fall Semester begins sept 7. ends dec. 18
winter vacation begins dec. 18 ends jan. 24
Spring Semester begins jan. 24 ends june 4
spring vacation begins march 26 ends april 4

3 origin and organization
5 location and life
6 work and recreation
7 plan of study
9 junior division
10 senior division and graduation
11 apprentice teachers
13 courses
13 ART
34 library
35 laboratories
35 other equipment
35 health
37 admission to the student body
39 fees
39 student aid and work
41 information for new students
42 officers, faculty, students

* Black and white images are shown of a still life with papers and globe on a desk; and an outside view of a College building surrounded by trees.

origin and organization
Black Mountain College was founded in the fall of 1933 by a group of teachers and students interested in the ideas of a coeducational college, unhampered by outside control, where free use might be made of tested and proved methods of education, where new methods might be tried out, and where there should be candid recognition of the importance of participation in responsibility by students as well as Faculty.
When the College was incorporated its charter was so drawn as to place control of all its affairs ultimately with the Faculty. Matters of educational policy and discipline are dealt with directly by them. Appointments and financial affairs are handled by the Board of Fellows, members of which are elected for three-year terms by the Faculty from their own membership. A Rector, elected by the Faculty from among the Fellows for a one-year term, presides over the Board, which elects a Secretary and a Treasurer. It is felt that no division should exist between educational and administrative functions insofar as the guidance and responsibility for them are concerned, for the College is an organic social unit.
The students govern their own affairs by electing four students officers, the chief one of which is automatically nominated for election by the Faculty of the Board of Fellows for the term of his office. The student officers attend the monthly business meetings of the Faculty and meet from time to time with the Board to discuss problems concerning both students and faculty members, so that no action concerning students is taken without their opinion being considered. At intervals general meetings of the whole community are held in which everyone is free to express his views.
Outside opinion and contrasting points of view on College affairs are provided by an Advisory Council composed of friends of the College competent to offer expert advice on special aspects of its work.

location and life
Black Mountain College is located in the mountains of North Carolina at an altitude of 2700 feet, near the town of Black Mountain which is about eighteen miles east of Asheville. It is on one of the main lines of the Southern Railway and is easily accessible by motor car and bus. The property, which the College leases, and which comprises over one thousand acres, is on the slope of the main Blue Ridge, facing the Black Mountain and Craggy ranges on the other side of the Swannanoa Valley. Most of the land is wooded, but there is a farm of about thirty acres and a considerable number of buildings well adapted to the College needs.
The physical setting, with its relative isolation, is well suited to community living. The members of the teaching staff, their families, and the students live in the same buildings, have their meals together, and are constantly in close contact with one another. As a result the relationship is not so much that of teacher to student as of one member of the community to another. This ease of communication meets one of the time tested needs of education; but it does not mean that the disparities of interest between younger and older people are not recognized. The scope of mutual interests is only enlarged.
Each member of the community is afforded privacy by having an individual study, although in general two students share a bedroom. Faculty rooms are scattered among student rooms.
The community keeps in touch with affairs outside of the College world through a fairly constant stream of visitors, many of whom speak informally on subjects in which they have a special competence. The five-week winter vacation enables students and faculty to visit metropolitan centers during the season for concerts, plays, art exhibits, and other cultural activities.
One of the implications of the accepted equality between men and women is that they should be educated together, that they should learn to associate with each other in most of the important activities of life not as opposites but on a basis of common humanity. Consequently, coeducation should be more than attendance of the same classes and participation in social trialities at an entirely artificial level. By living the life of a normal community in which they share intellectual work, manual work, recreation, and responsibility both to themselves and to the group, young men and women come to regard each other primarily as human beings, and thus establish a healthy and mature attitude toward one another.
It is held that one of the functions of education is to develop intelligently responsible students, and that this can be done only by giving them responsibility. This the College attempts to do, in all directions and to the fullest extent compatible with their ability to assume it and their position to answer for it. Naturally, each individual differs in his capacity both for perceiving where his responsibility lies and for assuming it when he does perceive clearly; for distinguishing what affects him alone and what affects other people; for recognizing those areas in which he is competent to have an opinion and those in which he is not. This placing of responsibility upon the members of the group individually and collectively carries with it the implication of a minimum of rules: for the abiding by an externally imposed rule may or may not be an act of intelligence or responsibility. What regulations the students have they have assumed voluntarily, and these are subject to re-examination at any time. When a student has reached the intellectual and emotional maturity that enables him to think before he acts, to see his actions in terms of their effect upon the community as well as upon himself, to consider the future as well as the present, and to recognize the limitations of his own opinions, one of the chief tasks of the College is done.

work and recreation
At Black Mountain College there is not the same sharp cleavage that often exists between work and play, between curricular and extra-curricular activities. All work except that which requires the continuous attention of one person is divided among volunteers from the student body and the teaching staff. For example, members of the College wait upon themselves and each other at meals, voluntary crews under the supervision of a student repair the roads or cut wood or work on the farm, and students work in the library under the supervision of the Librarian. It would of course be misleading to suppose that all students are equally alert in their responses: the emphasis is upon seeing whether they are actually becoming responsible, not upon whether they act as if they were responsible.
Nearly everyone gets out-of-doors between lunch and four o'clock when classes are resumed. Several tennis courts, an athletic field, and a well-equipped gymnasium, containing hand-ball and basket-ball courts, provide opportunities for organized sports. There are, besides these, a large out-of-door swimming pool and a small lake suitable for swimming and other water sports; while the mountainside contains many miles of trails for walking or horseback riding.
The College also operates a small farm. Its purpose is not to provide professional agricultural training, but rather to offer training in a very practical sort of experience to a few students interested in undertaking the responsibility of running it, and at the same time to offer healthy exercise to a great many others who may care to supply casual assistance.
Due to the belief that the College should be, insofar as possible, a self-contained social unit, as an appropriate place is given to entertainment and social activities. Musical programs, provided by College people and by outsiders, both formally and informally, are very frequent. Numerous art exhibitions from galleries and foundations come to the College; and the artists within the College exhibit their work from time to time. Several plays are presented during the year. Two or three times a week there is a half hour of dancing after dinner, and almost every Saturday night a semi-formal dance.

*Black and white images of students on College grounds, hugging, sitting in a circle for discussion, and standing in a field.

plan of study
Curricular and extra-curricular activities, as the words are usually employed, imply divided responsibility; that is to say, students are responsible to teachers for their curricular activities and to themselves and each other for their extra-curricular activities. No such sharp distinction holds in Black Mountain College, where this is full recognition of the fact that self-directed work is invaluable.
As a result of this point of view, Dramatics, Music, and the Fine Arts, which often exist precariously on the fringes of the curriculum, are regarded as an integral part of the life of the College and of importance equal to that of the subjects that usually occupy the center of the curriculum. In fact, in the early part of the student’s career, they are considered of greater importance; because in the first place, they are, when properly employed, least subject to discretion from without and yet have within them a severe discipline of their own; and also because of the conviction that through some kind of art-expression, which is not necessarily the same as self-expression, the student can come to the realization of order in the world; and, by being sensitized to movement, form, sound, and other media of the arts, gets a firmer control of himself and his environment than is possible through purely intellectual effort. This is a theory, but a theory which has met the test of experience. It has already been shown to the satisfaction of those who have had a share in it that the direct result of the discipline of the arts is to give tone and quality to intellectual discipline.
The student is encouraged on entering to alter the procedure to which he has usually become accustomed and to put the same faith in doing that he has been taught to have in absorbing. While work in the arts is particularly suitable in this respect, the various disciplines inherent in other fields are developed in such a way as also to emphasize self-directed work.
As a corollary to this point of view, there are no required courses. The student is free to choose whatever courses he pleases, provided only he has the prerequisite knowledge that is necessary.
The extreme freedom of choice would in many cases result in confusion if it were irresponsible, but one of its purposes is to place responsibility where it belongs: namely, on the student. However, he is not thrust into an incomprehensible world and told he must find his way by trial and error, for there are always nearby older and more experienced people ready to help. But in the end the choice is with him. In consequence, there have been set up two points in the career of the student at which he must face comprehensive tests of his failure or success in meeting responsibility. The curriculum of the College is divided into two parts, the Junior Division and the Senior Division. Before moving from the former to the latter the student must pass one of these tests, and before graduation, the other.

junior division
The Junior Division, in which entering students are placed, is intended as a period of exploration in the varied fields of knowledge offered by the College curriculum. There are no required courses; but the adviser whom the student has chosen from the teaching staff helps him to decide what subjects to take, with a view to gaining some acquaintances with the Sciences, the Social Studies, Literature, and the Arts. There is no prescribed length of time for a student's stay in the Junior Division; whenever the student feels he has explored sufficiently to make an intelligent choice of a particular subject for specialization, he may apply for entrance to the Senior Division.
Admission to the Senior Division depends upon the student's accomplishment, up to the time he applies for entrance, as demonstratable by; faculty testimony, specimens of work (such as note books, papers, artistic productions, etc.), records, his statement of his achievements, and a comprehensive examination. The comprehensive examination includes a choice of questions on all subjects in the College curriculum and is both written and oral. The written part consists of two papers, for each of which there is allowed a maximum time of nine hours and free use of the library, laboratories, notes, music records, and similar aids. Finally, a plan of study for the Senior Division, drawn up by the student in conference with his adviser and with faculty members whose fields it touches, must be approved by the Faculty.

senior division and graduation
In the Senior Division, the student's work is of a more specialized character and is guided mainly by the plan he has himself drawn up, though he still has time free for courses not included in his plan. As in the Junior Division, his stay here depends upon his accomplishment and not upon any residence requirement. In general, however, the length of a student's college career approximates the usual four years.
Graduation is based on the student's accomplishment at the time he wishes to graduate, particularly upon the completion, to the satisfaction of the Faculty, of the work outlined in his plan of study for the Senior Division, as shown by a rigorous comprehensive examination given by examiners from outside the College.
The requirements for this final comprehensive examination vary somewhat according to the field of study, but in general they call for seven three-hour papers with oral examinations following. In most cases, two of these papers deal with the student's subject knowledge, and three papers deal with the student's subject in an extensive way, one paper with related fields of knowledge, and three papers with subdivisions of the student's subject which particularly interests him. The seventh paper is intended to concern itself with some special problem connected with the subject and may often be presented in thesis form.
Examinations for graduation in the last two years have been given by the following outside examiners: Robert Arnold Aubin, Tutor in English Literature, Radcliffe College; Douglas Bement, Assistant Professor of English, George Washington University; Phillip Putnam Chase, Lecturer in American History and Chairman of the Board of History Tutors, Harvard University; Alfred Thurber West, Director of Dramatics, Duke University.
The College grants no degrees or certificates. The quantity and quality of the accomplishment that is requires for graduation is equivalent to that required for the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science at Eastern universities. Records showing the quality and quantity of work done in specific courses are kept not only for any credit system within the College but for purposes of transfer to other institutions, for either undergraduate or graduate work.

apprentice teachers
Believing that the development of teachers should be one of its functions, the College has begun and proposes to continue the practice of admitting each year as apprentice teachers two or three students, either its own graduates or highly recommended graduates of other colleges. Such apprentice teachers are in no sense assistant instructors taking over part of the work of members of the Faculty, nor are they what is ordinarily designed as graduate students of education. Rather, they are students who, having already a sound foundation in some field, wish to learn the art of teaching - insofar as an art can be learned - by working with and studying the methods of successful teachers both in their own and in other fields, by attending the educational meetings of the Faculty, and by some practice teaching after they have become competent to do it. The College has had apprentice teachers in Art, Dramatics, and Music, and expects gradually to offer opportunities in other fields.
Applicants must apply for admission in the same manner as regular students, although additional information will be required. The same financial regulations will apply to apprentice teachers as to regular students.

*Black and white images of students, man and woman, drawing or painting outside on rocks; and a man in a field with dogs.

All work at the College is regarded as general education rather than as training for any specific profession or vacation. This does not mean, however, that a solid background or a high degree of proficiency cannot be obtained in any field.
The following statements of ideas and practices in different fields and courses are not meant to be definitive or inclusive. The curriculum is flexible and generally able to meet reasonable new needs as they arise. The plan of work for each student is an individual problem. In each course the emphasis is essentially on process and the relationship between subjects is stressed.
Most of the courses listed are being given this year. Some are offered in alternative years; others are offered only on demand. Classes usually meet in small discussion groups without formal lecturing; but each teacher is free to conduct his courses in whatever way he sees fit.

The main purposes of all art studies are: to reach through practical experience, an understanding of the essential crafts and problems of art work; to learn different seeings and interpretations of our world and time; and most important, to get an insight into one's individual constitution. Because these ends are better attained through class work, art studies are conducted as classes. But for special art students there is, additionally, tutorial correction and criticism.
Drawing means practical studies of the graphic arts.

drawing I
For beginners. The goal is a disciplined education of the eye and the hand. Besides technical exercises in measuring, disposing, form, rhythm, and lettering, there are elementary studies in three-dimensional representation, particularly in foreshortening and overlapping.
Two semesters; four hours a week. Mr Albers

*Black and white images of weaving artwork; and male students removing or cutting down a large tree.

drawing II
For advanced students, who have finished the fundamental studies. Nature drawing, materie drawing (see Werklehre), analytical nature drawing; free perspective; lettering; practical typographical studies on the typewriter; figure drawing; quick sketching; memory drawing; proportion exercise; music and drawing.
Two semesters; four hours a week. Mr Schawinsky
Color means practical studies of color and painting

color I
Systematic research in the different qualities of color; relativity of color; color related to form, space, distance, and quantity; the different intensitites; color systems; graduation; substance; physic effects; free combinations in color and their analysis.
Two semesters; two hours a week. Mr Albers

color II
For advanced students who have had Color I. Practical uses of color mediums in painting; unorganized and organized color; proportion and quantity of color; black, white, and gray; music and color; materie studies; painting of masks; advertising painting; practical analysis of old and modern masters; elementary exercises in composition; technique.
Two semesters; two hours a week Mr Schawinsky

For students with experience in drawing. To develop an understanding of material and space. Experimental studies concerning both appearance and capacity. Those related to appearance (or surface or epidermis) and called materie studies comprise: practice in combination of material; differentiation of texture, structure, and facture; affinity and contrast. Those related to capacity and called material studies comprise: practice in construction; the experiencing and learning the use of technical qualities such as firmness, flexibility, weight, tension, contraction, expansion, bending, declension.
Organically combined with the exercises on material and materie are considerations of static and dynamic form, active and passive volume, proportion and rhythm, economy of both work and material. The educational goal; building-thinking.
Two semesters; two hours a week. Mr Albers

*Black and white images of artworks, presumably stage props used for plays; and students gathered outside.

stage studies
This course is not intended as training for any particular branch of the contemporary theater but rather as a general study of fundamental phenomena: space, form, color, light, sound, music, movement, time, etc. The studies take place on the stage for several reasons: it is by nature a place of illusion: it is well suited for representation of the sensibilities of today and for training in the recognition of conscious and visual order; and it is an excellent laboratory for the investigation and illustration of all of these elements.
The method of study is through active participation and experimentation, improvisation, self-education in mobility on the stage, and presentation to the College of the conclusions arrived at.
Students interested in special fields such as stage technique, sets, choreography, costuming, masks, etc., will conceive and develop their own projects outside of the class, discussing their work with the teacher from time to time. The results of their work will be presented to the class for general discussion.
Two semesters; four hours a week Mr Schawinsky
Music collaborator, Mr Evarts

art class
Occasional meetings for the whole community. Art and form themes or questions of general interest discussed from an artistic or cultural, philosophical or social, technical or economical - that is, from an esthetic - rather than from a historical viewpoint. Sample topics:
Tectonic and acetonic architecture. What is the typical form for glass, for stone, wood, metal? The social sense of the American Indian ornament. Criticism of College exhibitions, of fabrics made by the weaving class. Mr Albers
Techniques of reproduction in printing. Art in advertising and in exposition architecture. Music and color. Problems of the modern theatre. Mr Schawinsky

art seminar
Only for those who have done art work independently outside of class. Purpose: to experience the correspondence between what one has set out to do and the resulting reaction of the spectator. Mr Albers and Mr Schawinsky

Practical and theoretical work in hand-weaving; to develop a feeling for material and an understanding of the elements of form in textiles; to prepare for individual or industrial productions of fabrics. Beginning with a free play of the given means, the work includes the set-up of the loom, draft-writing (for hand and for power loom), the development of new drafts, the analysis of fabric samples, the different weaving techniques (weaving on looms up to eight harnesses, gobelin, smyrna, etc.), the experimentation with unusual materials. On the one hand, studies in the free composition of texture, color, and the surface qualities of materials (that is, the work of art); and on the other hand, studies emphasizing the functional qualities of materials (that is, the useful textile).
Two semesters; one hour of theory, four hours of practice a week. Mrs Albers

The purpose of music activity are several. Broadly, it is intended to bring music as an important living element into the lives of as many people as possible, to draw out and develop latent potentialities in various fields of performing, and to depend the experience of listening to music. Music work also seeks to sharpen the student's sensitivities and awareness through the disciplines of performing and listening intelligently; and in students who possess a particular musical talent but who lack confidence in other fields, it attempts to build up through other things. And finally, the common experience of many people listening to music or taking part in singing acts as a cohesive force in the life of the community.
In the belief that the genuine appreciation of music includes listening to it in its own terms, that a keener recognition of the technique brings a closer understanding of the content and of the composer's intention, three successive courses have been worked out in music appreciation and history. Phonograph records and the piano provide most of the illustrative material; but occasionally students illustrate with singing or instrumental playing.

music appreciation I
For people of little or no musical background or experience. To develop an intelligent approach to all music, beginning with some of the fundamentals and with the sharpening of perceptive capacities, a great variety of music is played. After a bird's eye view of the scope and possibilities of music has been given, a more chronological approach is adopted; early music and 16th Century composers, Bach, Handel, Haydin, Mozart.
Two semesters; three hours a week. Mr Evarts

music appreciation II
Beethoven to Brahms. More attention to theoretical aspects; some elementary work in composition. Work in ear training and theory more as an aid to intelligent listening and evaluation than as a preparation for composing or professional training.
Two semesters; three hours a week Mr Evarts

music appreciation III
Brahms to contemporary composers. Continuation of theoretical work and composition. Mr Evarts

19th century opera
Chiefly Wagner and Debussy. Through study of thematic materials, text, and score. Biographies of composers.
Two semesters; one hour a week. Mr Evarts

general singing
For entire community. In the early fall, simple and popular tunes; as the year progresses, some of the best choral literature. The emphasis lies on the choice of music and the pleasure of participation rather than on the technical excellence of performance.
Two semesters; once a week Mr Sly

choral singing
This class sings music showing more divergence of style: for example, plainsong, Bach, Holst, and Hindemith. The historical sequence is not necessarily followed, however, because of the difficulties encountered when inexperienced singers attempt music in a strange idiom. Not limited to singers with previous experience; but those who do not have some skill and knowledge are able to make comments and to see their ideas od directing a chorus put immediately into practice.
Two semesters; once a week. Mr Sly

*Black and white mages of musicians playing string instruments; and man reading a paper with a pipe, artwork lines the wall behind him.

For students and teachers who play or are willing to learn to play. Main purpose: to offer intimate contact with the best music, much of which is surprisingly ways to play, and to play well. Subsidiary disciplines are available, such as filling in at the piano from a score, transposing and arranging.
Two semesters; three hours a week. Mr Sly
While the laboratory nature of both the Choral Singing class and the Orchestra is paramount, opportunities exist for giving good performances, independently or in combination.

piano lessons
Main purpose: to relate the student's work to his individual experiences in both music and other forms of expression. Novices are encouraged. Advanced students prepare repositories from which recitals are given as illustrations in the music appreciation courses; opportunities are created for ensemble playing and accompanying.
Throughout the year as required. Mr Evarts and Mr Sly

The work in the Dramatics is intended to serve to purposes: to be a meeting point of all the arts and to be the medium through which the student, interpreting and performing under the discretion of the playwright's mind, may become more fully aware of himself as a person. The student, therefore, not the play, is the thing. With the individual student occupying first place the entertainment of spectators, development of the ability to act, and artistic perfection take second place. As a rule, the student is cast in the part which is best for him at that time but occasionally a cast is chosen from the more experienced students so that the rest of the college and whatever outsiders may be invited may become more aware of drama as an artistic form.
Plays are worked on and produced throughout the year. Mr Wunsch

In the belief that writing should be taught wherever things are written, no special course is offered in composition or in the mechanics of English. Such instruction falls upon each teacher in his own field, and students are expected to write a paper on economics as carefully as one on Milton. Creative writing, however, as well as journalism, has a place in the curriculum.

creative writing
The main purpose of this course is the development of a keenness of perception, of a freshness of expression, of a capacity for intellectual and emotional enjoyment. The student is encouraged to dip his nets where he is and find material in his unique experience and in the everyday life about him. Beginning with simple exercises in the use of words, the work proceeds through the recording of sense impressions and brief analyses of character to the expression of observed episodes and truthfully imagined episodes. Later on work is attempted in specific literary forms, particularly plays.
Two semesters; three hours a week. Mr Wunsch

Practical work in writing articles for local newspapers.
Two semesters; two hours a week. Mr Wunsch

The courses in the history of English Literature have as their primary aim the development of critical insight: the ability to recognize a thing for what it is, both in its own terms and in relationship to other parts of human experience.
Teaching strives to assist the growth of critical insight by varied means. Of first importance is the examination of the greater literary works in their own immediate terms; consequently, considerable time is spent in reading poetry aloud and reading plays dramatically. There follows the acquisitions of sufficient supplementary factual information to put the modern student of past literary works more in the position of the contemporaneous reader. The traditional apparatus of scholarship is employed insofar as it facilitates the understanding of literature as such; but it is kept in mind that the elucidation of textual obscurities, the tracing of literary forms, and the investigation of the personal lives of authors are merely tools of criticism and not ends in themselves.
In treating English literature historically, it is regarded not as a self-contained tradition but as an inseparable part of the articulate thought and feeling of a millennium or so of English history in the broadest sense. Similarly, individual works are examined as offsprings of the age and society which produced them, contemporary parallels in other fields often cited and possible modern analogues suggested. Here as in other discussions of relationships, the emphasis rests not on establishing by the scholar's apparatus the facts of "sources" and "borrowings", but on perceiving the specific quality of the likeness of the difference.

introductory historical survey
A reading course intended to familiarize the student with a few of the more important literary works from Anglo-Saxon times to the present day. No attempt is made to deal with works which the student does not have time to read for himself.
Two semesters; three hours a week Mr Martin

medieval literature
Chaucer and his contemporaries.
One semester; three hours a week; alternate years Mr Martin

16th century literature
Emphasis mainly on Shakespeare and the earlier dramatics of the Elizabethan period.
One semester; three hours a week; alternate years Mr Martin

17th century literature
Chiefly concerned with Milton, and the metaphysical poets.
One semester; three hours a week, alternate years Mr Martin

18th century literature
Dryden to Dr Johnson. Special attention is paid to the rise of the novel.
One semester; three hours a week, alternate years Mr Martin

the romantic movement
Deals mainly with the poetry of the period 1780-1832.
One semester; three hours a week, alternate years Mr Martin

19th century literature
One semester; three hours a week, alternate years Mr Martin

american literuare I
Dealing with the period 1850-1914.
One semester; two hours a week Mr Martin

american literature II
Post-War literature.
One semester; two hours a week Mr Wunsch

form in literature
Analysis of selections from English and American literature strictly from an esthetic point of view. Problems of style and form. Appreciation of literature as an art form.
One semester; one hour a week Mr Wunsch

problems of the novel
Reading and analysis, predominantly from the technical and esthetic point of view, of as many modern novels as time permits.
One semester; two hours a week Mr Mangold

general introduction to linguistics
The science of language; the language of the world, with particular attention to the Indo-European group. Elementary exercises in the analysis of English in various aspects: phonetic, semantic, syntactical, etc.
Two semesters; three hours a week. Mr Mangold and Mr Martin

Knowledge of a foreign language is not required for entrance to the College, for admission to the Senior Division, not for graduation. It is recognized that the learning of a language is a slow and difficult process and that frequently the value of the process and of the result to a given individual is not commensurate with the time and effort involved. A student is encouraged to undertake or to continue the study of a language only when it seems likely that such a study will be genuinely significant to him.
Work is offered in French, German, Greek, Latin, and Spanish, and their respective literatures and cultures. The learning of a language is not regarded as an end it itself, but as an approach to broader human problems, during the course of which many fields may be opened, many faculties exercised, and many relationships established. Language is not conceived as an isolated grammatical mechanism but as an organism with countless psychological, historical, and esthetic implications. No prescribed curriculum has been set up nor is any one method adhered to. The acquisition of an ability to read comprehendingly is one of the most immediate goals. There is also ample opportunity for learning to speak the modern languages. Through learning a foreign language a student may become more aware of his own and of the general phenomenon of language communication.
The emphasis is shifted from the linguistic to the literary and cultural sides of language as soon as possible, although from the beginning only texts of intrinsic merit are used. It is felt that literature should be studied primarily as literature and only subsequently and secondarily as literary history; that real acquaintance with first-rate writers and a feeling for a given culture should be the main goals.
In all the languages an Introductory Course and an Advanced Course are offered in alternate years. By the end of the second year a student should be able to read in the modern languages, without the intermediary process of translation, all but the most difficult things.
No series of courses in literature have been devised. A literary genre, a period, one single author or several authors, will be studied as the need arises. Philogical work may be taken by students specializing in a language.
The following courses have been offered last year and this year.

french: introductory french, advanced french, introductory survey of french literature, seminar on stendhal, falubert, and proust
Two semesters; three hours a week Mr Mangold

german: introductory german, advanced german, 19th century german literature, seminar on goethe, seminar on nietzsche.
Two semesters; three hours a week Mrs Moellenhoff

greek: introductory greek
Two semesters; three hours a week Mr Rice

latin: latin lyric poetry
Two semesters; three hours a week Mr Rice

*Black and white images of student actors on a stage; and a group of individuals seated in a circle, in discussion.

spanish: introductory spanish, advanced spanish,
Two semesters; three hours a week.

The courses in History attempt to give the student a familiarity with the broader aspects of man's past and present activities, and of the forces which bear on them, and to provoke a mental unrest in the student which will not allow him unthinkingly to conform with what is and what has been. The accumulation of factual material for background and chronological continuity is regarded as the foundation upon which a student may discipline his imagination and intuitive faculties, may learn to discriminate between the relevant and the irrelevant, to weigh evidence, to order material and to present it in a logical and graceful fashion; and finally as the basis from which he may attain a more mature insight into how man acts and has acted, and may reach a sane perspective in weighing human motives and events.
the renaissance and formation. the last three centuries in europe. england since 1485. modern biography. american history..
Two semesters; three hours a week; alternate years. Mr King

history of civilization in the new world
Geography, climatology, and natural resources of the Americas; indigenous civilizations; historical background of European conquerors and colonizers; the Conquest and colonization; slavery and African transplantation; the Colonial period to modern times and modern problems; the uninterrupted mingling of cultures.
Two semesters; three hours a week. Mr Portell-Vila

american diplomatic history
The diplomacy of the American Revolution; the early discretions of the foreign policy of the United States; later development and concretion of these directions into present day foreign policy. Prerequisite: reading knowledge of French and Spanish.
Two semesters; two hours a week Mr Portell-Vila

modern latin america
Contemporary cultural, political, and economic problems of Latin America.
One semester; one hour a week. Mr Portell-Vila

current international affairs
Consideration of important world events as they happen, with a view to stimulating interest in international relations and to cultivating an enlightened and unbiased understanding of issues and forces which do, or which eventually may, affect this country.
Two semesters; one hour a week. Mr Portell-Vila

The courses in economics seek to give historical perspective and contemporary orientation to social and economic institutions and practices. An attempt is made to awaken students to the significance of the tremendous social changes of our times and to prepare them intellectually and emotionally for life in a rapidly changing world. Every effort is made to acquaint the student with contemporary social and economic activities in both the field of private enterprise and the field of governmental undertakings. In a world of warring propaganda and dogmatic approaches to the social studies an attempt is made to evaluate social and phenomena realistically and dispassionately.

basic principles, problems, and policies
An attempt to arrive at some economic laws or generalizations from a study of current economic practices; analysis of the various theories of value and distributions in the light of present day economic activities; problems of practical economic relationships as revealed in current national and international economic frictions.

A survey of natural, capital, and human resources for the purpose of acquainting the beginning student in economics with the location and quantity of basic raw materials, accumulated capital goods, and acquired human capacities upon which economic developments depend.

A study of the origin and development of economic institutions from the collectional economy of primitive peoples to the metropolitan, national, and world economies of modern times in order to show the progressive utilization of economic resources through the introduction of new institutions and their evolutions.

economic history
A study of the economic problems and the development of economic practices and institutions in the United States from the settlement of the North American Atlantic seaboard to the present time. Special emphasis on such topics as History of Land Settlement, Development of Agriculture, History of Banking, Development of Transportation, Rise of Labor Organizations.

the development of modern europe
The rise of the handicraft system, the growth of cities, the coming of the industrial revolution, the specialization of industry, the growth of markets, the spread of commerce, and many other of the chief economic developments that have gone into the making of modern Europe.
All of the courses are of one semester duration; the first meets four hours a week, the rest three hours. Mr Zeuch

Acquaintance with the field of Psychology is made, as far as it is practicable, through a utilization of the students' actual everyday experiences in living. Discussion of observed behavior leads inevitably to a consideration of the experimental facts and the theories rising from them, and in this way a connection is maintained between the students' lives and the material of psychological literature.

introductory psychology
Beginning by collecting questions concerning the behavior of the people surrounding them, the students subject these questions to examination with a view to finding methods for answering them. The individual students then devise methods for obtaining pertinent information, test the methods by use, and finally draw the conclusions which their facts warrant.
One semester; three hours a week. Mr Knickerbocker Mr Moellenhoff

*Black and white images of musicians playing brass instruments, an individual looking through a magnifying microscope, and two students in a science laboratory surrounded by beakers.

developmental psychology
A course in general psychology from the genetic point of view.
One semester; three hours a week. (not offered 1937-1938)
Mr Knickerbocker

dynamic (abnormal) psychology
A course for advanced students, stressing the functional aspects of human behavior, utilizing materials and theories from the field of abnormal psychology.
One semester; three hours a week. (not offered 1937-1938)
Mr Knickerbocker

problems: child vs adult
For students who have had practical experience with children in camps or schools; discussion of actual problems.
Two semesters; one hour a week. (not offered 1937-1938)
Mr Knickerbocker

By permission only. Introduction to the theories and principles of psychoanalysis; their application to a deeper understanding of underlying forces in human nature, culture, and art.
One semester; three hours a week. Mr Moellenhoff

studies in psychopathology
Introduction to abnormal psychology; characterization of the various types of personality; pathological traits in normality, talent, and genius; pathological personality types. Illustrative material from biography, literature, and art.
One semester; three hours a week. Mr Moellenhoff

The purpose of work in the Sciences is three-fold: to give the student experience in the fundamental methods of thought and experiment in Science (without, however, neglecting discussion of limitations as well as of possibilities), to give to a content of factual material, and to give an orientation in the economic and social significance of the practical application of the Sciences.

introductory biology
The chief problems and the general principles of Biology with emphasis on their application, especially to the human body.
Course based on textbook, but the mere learning of terminology and definitions subordinated to illustrative laboratory work, and to provoking and answering questions.
Two semesters; three class hours, four laboratory hours a week.
Mrs Moellenhoff

introductory general chemistry
Emphasis on the social and economic aspects of applied Chemistry, on its relationships to the other sciences, as well as upon its factual and basic scientific aspects.
Two semesters; three class hours, four laboratory hours a week.
Mr Georgia

qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, organic chemistry
One and two semesters, with appropriate class and laboratory hours a week. Mr Georgia

introductory general physics
For students who have not previously studied physics. Through experiments, problems, discussion, this course deals with the traditional subject matter of physics, and exphasizes the many relationships with other fields as well as those between the different branches of physics itself. Attention is also paid to the recent developments in the subject and how they are affecting modern thought.
Two semesters; three class hours, four laboratory hours a week.
Mr Dreier

physics of musical sounds
An elementary course for those who are interested in music and who have had little mathematical preparation.
One semester; three class hours, four laboratory hours a week.
Mr Dreier

More advanced work in the various branches of physics is available for students with adequate preparation. Trigonometry and analytic geometry are prerequisite.

The study of Mathematics is regarded as training in abstract thought; but abstract thought is related to the world. The emphasis is of course on method, although practical problems are used.
It is considered more important, for instance, for a student to formulate for himself a relation between several variables than merely to manipulate an aggregate of symbols given by someone else. It is better still when he discovers an abstraction which links together diverse phenomena which had seemed unrelated.
The relation of Mathematics to science becomes obvious from such practice. And if thereby the student also attains some recognition of the importance of general ideas in the world, he has opened for himself a gateway to philosophy as well.

algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry
An introductory course in which stress is laid particularly on the development of the elementary relations between algebra and geometry and on the idea of functions. It includes a beginning of calculus.
Two semesters; three hours a week. Mr Dreier

differential and integral calculus
In this course the study of functions is carried further, and the formal development of the subject is accompanied by numerous problems showing the applications to the various branches of physics, including geometry.
Two semesters; three hours a week. Mr Dreier

The purpose of the work in philosophy is to give the students some practice in the philosopher's way of going about things. This work includes not only the use of language in handling ideas but is intended also to make the student aware of the limitations of this medium. The assumption is that the student comes to college with a fairly large vocabulary, most of which has no meaning for him. The task then is not one of definition but of understanding. Logic and the other tools of the philosopher are used as a means to this end.

plato I
An introduction to this method, intended primarily for students who have just come to college.
Two semesters; one hour a week. Mr Rice

plato II
A continuation and elaboration of this method.
Two semesters; three hours a week. Mr Rice

logic. ethics. plato's dialog. the philosophy of science.
One semester; three hours a week. (not offered 1937-1938).
Mr Goldenson

the library
The library at present contains about ten thousand volumes, two thirds of which have been catalogued according to the Library of Congress system. Fifteen hundred more, in faculty members' private collections, are available through a separate catalog. A periodical room includes over forty magazines and newspapers which are received regularly.
Though not large, the library performs the functions demanded by the college in fairly adequate fashion. Its original nucleus was the professional libraries of the faculty members, it has been very fortunate in some of its gifts from outside, and its direct purchases have practically all been made to meet the specific needs of individual courses. A regular annual appropriation for book buying assures steady coordinated growth. In addition, the University of North Carolina and Duke University have extendede the courtesy of their Interlibrary Loan Service, through which books required for more specialized work are available for limited periods.
The library also provides an opportunity for a number of students, working voluntarily under the direction of the Librarian, to gain experience in several kinds of practical work.

Scientific apparatus and laboratory equipment are sufficient for elementary work in Physics and Biology, and for all ordinary undergraduate work in Chemistry. As the demand grows for more advanced courses in the sciences, the laboratories will be expanded accordingly.

other equipment
The Music department has a studio equipped with piano, radio and phonograph as well as containing a library of musical scores and more than a hundred albums of phonograph records. There are also a pair of concert pianos and several orchestral instruments, while a small detached building containing additional pianos is available for practical purposes.
Theatrical equipment includes a medium-sized stage with modern lighting apparatus and other stage properties.
For weaving there are a number of hand looms (three of them with eight harnesses) both for cloth weaving and for rug weaving.
The College owns a small hand press.
A woodworking shop has been well equipped with hand and power tools, in which many things needed by the College, such as laboratory tables, hand looms, bookshelves, and stage properties are constructed.

A Health Certificate and an Oculist's Certificate are required of all applicants for admission, and all entering students are urged to be immunized against smallpox, diphtheria, and typhoid fever. The College reserves the right to insist upon inoculations at any time should occasion for them arise; and, further, to insist upon any health measures that its medical consultants may prescribe.
Room has been provided in which people suffering from minor ailments or injuries may be isolated and properly cared for. The College has no resident nurse, but requires anyone needing the attention of a nurse shall have it, at the College's expense if the person is absolutely unable to afford it himself.
There are several physicians immediately at hand in Black Mountain, and the neighboring city of Asheville is well supplied not only with modern hospital facilities but also with specialists in various fields of medicine.

* Black and white images of students outside of building, walking and standing near large pillars; and students dancing

admission to the student body
Admission to the student body is determined by a Committee composed of faculty members and students. It is the function of this Committee to form an opinion of what sort of person an applicant is, of how adequate his previous training has been, and of what likelihood there seems to be that he will be benefitted by attending the College and will in turn contribute to the life of the College.
The College has adopted no fixed regulations concerning the age or scholastic background of applicants for admission, preferring rather to consider each individual case upon its merits. It assumes, however, that in most cases an applicant will be of normal college age, and will have satisfactorily completed a four year course in an accredited secondary school or will be able to show, by acceptable certificates or records of examinations, that he has had equivalent scholastic preparation. Candidates whose preparation is in any way dubious will be further investigated in whatever manner the Admission Committee sees fit. No student will be admitted unless, in the judgement of the Committee, he has sufficient intelligence and has had sufficient previous training to be able to carry college work.
Every applicant for admission must submit to the Committee, on forms provided by the College:
1. An Application for Admission to the College, which must be filled out in full and which must be accompanied by a non refundable application fee of ten dollars.
2. A Health Certificate and an Oculist's Certificate, to be sent directly to the College by the examiners within two weeks of the time the application is submitted unless an extension of time is granted.
The College will write directly to the references, given on the Application for Admission, for letters of recommendation and for records of previous work.
A personal interview with a representative of the College is required when this is at all possible.
Applicants whose financial resources are insufficient to meet the necessary charges of the College must fill out an Application for Student Aid on the form provided by the College.
The Admissions Committee does not require but would be pleased to receive from an applicant an original piece of writing such as an essay, a poem, a letter, or a story. The Committee prefers this to be in the applicant’s own handwriting and will appreciate a typewritten copy accompanying it if the handwriting is not easily legible. A specimen or a description of work done in a field of special interest may also be submitted.
It has been found desirable, under certain circumstances, for a prospective student to visit the College before applying for admission. The time preferable for doing this is during the semester preceeding the one in which he wishes to matriculate. The Committee will not decide upon an applicant while he is visiting the College. During the College year it usually takes from ten days to three weeks for a decision to be given, depending largely upon how promptly letters of reference are received.
During the summer this time is ordinarily somewhat longer since the Committee is dispersed. However, the College reserves the right to postpone decisions, for comparative purposes, as the number of students that can admitted at any given time is limited. No students will be accepted for a short trial period.
Students who wish to transfer from institutions of collegiate standing must apply for admission in the same way as students who are going to college for the first time. Like all entering students, regardless of the amount of work they have done elsewhere, they will go automatically into the lower of the two sections into which the College is divided, passing from the Junior to the Senior Division as soon as they can demonstrate their qualifications for Senior Division work.
Applicants, on admission, are expected to comply with certain financial arrangements (See fees).
Students may enter at any time in the College year. However, the date at which the student desires to enter must be clearly indicated on his application blank and he is admitted for entrance only at that time. If, after being notified of his admission, he finds it necessary to postpone his arrival for more than six weeks, his admission is automatically cancelled and his application must come before the Committee a second time. If such postponements defers the student's entrance till the following academic year, an entirely new application must be filled out and a second application fee paid.
Students who withdraw from the College without obtaining a leave of absence from the faculty must make regular application for re-admission if they wish to return.
All correspondence pertaining to application for admission should be directed to the Registrar.

Yearly fee for room, board, and tuition $1250.00
This is payable in two installments of $635 each during the first week of each semester, except as provided below.
The College cannot guarantee that a place will be reserved for any student after August 1 for the Fall Semester, or January 10 for the Spring Semester, unless $200 has been deposited with the College by those dates. This deposit is not refundable if the student withdraws after those dates, except at Faculty discretion; for a withdrawal from the reserved place at the last moment may create a vacancy which otherwise could have been filled. If such deposit is made on or before August 1 or, in case the student is admitted later, within ten dats of notification of acceptance by the College, the fee will be reduced from $1250 to $1200 payable as follows:
August 1 $200.00
September 10 $600
January 24 $400
For students entering the Spring Semester the fee will be reduced from $625 to $600 provided $200 is deposited by January 1-.
For new students entering more than three weeks after either semester has begun special adjustments will be made.
The only other fees are:
Application fee $10.00
Matriculation fee $10.00
Contingency deposit $25
Examination for graduation $25.00
Fee for late payment of any bill $10.00
The application fee must accompany the application for admission to the College and is not refundable. The matriculation fee and contingency deposit are due when the student enters the College. Any unused portion of the contingency deposit is refundable when the student withdraws from the College. Bills are payable on the date of the bill and if not paid within ten days are subject to the fee for late payment.

*Black and white photograph of a student weaving at a loom; and an outside view of a building at the College.

student aid and work
The College desires representation of a wide cross-section of American life. To prevent restriction to a single economic stratum aid in the form of remission of fees is granted as far as the resources of the College permit. Those who can are required to pay the full cost of their education. Students who want to come to the College but who cannot afford this cost are encouraged to apply for Student Aid.
Students receiving aid must make application for it each year that they are in the College. Naturally, their applications will be considered before those of new applicants; but since the funds available are limited it is necessary that recipients shall justify the continuance of aid.
There is no provision for students' working their way through the College, for to have some students servants to the rest is disruptive to community life. When aid is granted there is no discrimination between its recipients and those paying the full fee. All work done by students is done on their own responsibility and without reference to their financial status.

information for new students
Students are responsible for the care of their own rooms, and for providing their own blankets, bed linens, and towels (which they should have at hand on arrival). Bedroom furniture is supplied and the bed linen is laundered by the College. Although additional cots, straight chairs, and other bedroom furniture may be similarly obtained for use in studies, most students either bring along their own study furniture, curtains, ruges, and the like, or buy them in Asheville.
The climate at Black Mountain is moderate and healthy, although the temperature may fall as low as zero once or twice during the winter. Clothing appropriate for walking in the mountains and for working outdoors should be provided as well as ordinary clothes suitable for this climate. Since old clothes or work clothes are worn during the day, an extensive wardrobe is neither necessary nor desirable.
No pets should be brought unless permission has been obtained.
Students may keep automobiles but garage facilities are limited.

The following supplementary pamphlets may be had on request: Pictures of the College, Financial Statements, Foreword of the First Catalog, The College Seal, Concerning Art Instruction, On the Civilization of the Two Americas.
The College has no summer session.

Francis F. Bradshaw Chapil Hill, North Carolina
John Dewey New York, New York
Ethel E. Dreier Brooklyn, New York
J. Malcolm Forbes Milton, Massachusetts
Lucy Gage Nashville, Tennessee
Sarah Goodwin Concord, Massachusetts
Walkter Locke Dayton, Ohio
Thomas W. Surette Concord, Massachusetts

Josef Albers, Theodore Dreier, Frederick Raymond Georgia, Tasker Howard Jr., Frederick Rogers Mangold, Joseph Walford Martin, Anna Moellenhoff, John Andrew Rice, William Robert Wunsch.

Ruth Barton, Jack Bradley Fahy, John Arthur Harrington, Tasker Howard, Jr.

John Andrew Rice Rector
Frederick Raymond Georgia Secretary
Theodore Dreier Treasurer
Norman Betts Weston Assistant Treasurer
Frederick Roger Mangold Registrar
Isabel Mangold Librarian

Anni Albers (formerly of the Bauhaus) Weaving
Josef Albers (formerly of the Bauhaus) Art
Theodore Dreier, A.B., S.B. in E.E., Physics and Mathematics
John Evarts, B.A. Music
Frederick Raymond Georgia, B. Chem., Ph.D. Chemistry
Robert Myar Goldenson, M.A. Philosophy
James Gore King, Jr., M.A. History
Irving Knickerbocker, Ph.D. Psychology
Frederick Rogers Mangold, Ph.D. Romance Languages
Joseph Walford Martin, M.A. (Oxon.) English
Anna Moellenhoff, Dr. med. Biology and German
*Fritz Moellenhodd, Dr. med. Psychology
Herminio Portell-Bila, L.L.D., Ph.D. History
John Andrew Rice, B.A. (Oxon.) Classics and Philosophy
Xanti Schawinsky (formerly of the Bauhaus) Art and Stage
Allan Bernard Sly Music
William Robert Wunsch, M.A. English and Dramatics
William Edward Zeuch, Ph.D. Economics
*absent on leave, 1936-37

Alsberg, George New York, New York
Andrews, Richard L. Bronxville, New York
Baron, Ruth Peterborough, New Hampshire
Beatty, Barbara Washingon, D.C.
Blakemore, Page P.B. Lexington, North Carolina
Brager, Nancy L. Baltimore, Maryland
Coleman, Beverly Norfolk, Virgina
Cramer, Doughten Moorestown, New Jersey
Crane, Lucien Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Dann, Norene Buckingham, Quebec
Dwight, Duncan D. Summit, New Jersey
Eliot, Alexander Northampton, Massachusetts
Fahy, Jack B. New York, New York
Farrell, Nancy Bronxville, New York
Forbes, Stephen H. Milton, Massachusetts
French, Caroline Kendal Green, Massachusetts
French, John R.P., Jr. Kendal Green, Massachusetts
Gair, Brenda Syosset, L.I., New York
Hall, Robert Moorestown, New Jersey
Hanford, John W. Scarsdale, New York
Harrington, John A. Whitemarsh, Pennsylvania
Henderickson, George W. New Rochelle, New York
Herter, Everit Ojai, California
Hillard, Elizabeth C. Bronxville, New York
Howard, Tasker, Jr. Brooklyn, New York
Hughes, Mary E. Brooklyn, New York
Jameson, Ann L. Rochester, New York
Katz, Leslie Baltimore, Maryland
Leeds, Millicent Brookline, Massachusetts
Luntz, James M. New York, New York
Martin, Bela Louisville, Kentucky
McGraw, John G. Black Mountain, North Carolina
McGuire, Robert G. Grosse Pointe, Michigan
Mitchell, Marion New York, New York
Nacke, Mation Denver, Colorado
Nipps, Katherine White Plains, New York
Page, Don Denver, Colorado
Reed, William F. New York, New York
Rhodes, Denis Brookline, Massachusetts
Rice, Frank A. Black Mountain, North Carolina
Rice, William Springfield, Massachusetts
Richard, Bertrand Paris, France
Russ, Nancy Lincoln, Massachusetts
Sargent, F. Porter Brookline, Massachusetts
Sheddon, Barbara Atlanta, Georgia
Steinau, Morton Louisville, Kentucky
Stephens, Hope Arden, Delaware
Sunley, Robert Oak Park, Illinois
Whipple, Emery S. Concord, Massachusetts
White, Gertrude R. New Rochelle, New York
Winslow, Kenelm Greenfield, Massachusetts
Yamins, Hyalie Fall River, Massachusetts

Bailey, Ruth H. Cambridge, Massachusetts
Weston, Anne C. Great Neck, L.I., New York

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